Before the Spanish arrived in the North American Southwest, ovens were underground. Below are a few examples. Some were lined with stone or clay and used near the surface. Some were dug into the earth and the food stuffs were buried during cooking.

Along with wheat flour, Spanish brought the horno, an above ground stone lined adobe dome used for baking. It was introduced to them during the Middle Ages by the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula. In an oven like this you can bake a loaf of bread in 15 minutes or a whole turkey in under 3 hours.

Here’s a look at how the horno is famously still used in pueblos today…

Follow up: I used my own backyard brick oven and this was the result…

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